Felted wool as a poly-quality mono-material

upholstered furniture

inseparable mass

Upholstered furniture consists of a variety of different materials, including wood-based panels, foam and textiles. The wood-based panels are composed of small pieces of wood that are bound with either formaldehyde-containing binders or cement. Consequently, they either emit hazardous vapours their entire lives or are bonded with the largest sources of emissions in the construction industry. The foams are petroleum-based, thus utilising fossil resources. The same applies to the textiles, which encase all other materials, making the interior inaccessible. All of them are firmly bonded, rendering them inseparable. This makes recycling uneconomical, thus preventing their return to the cycle.

wool as a poly-qualitative mono-material product

In contrast, wool, a regenerative raw material with outstanding properties, processed into a felt, is a mono-material. Besides the advanced digital manufacturing process, through utilisation of traditional felt making techniques it is able to take on both constructive and upholstering tasks in upholstered furniture. This enables the production of mono-material upholstered furniture from a renewable and biodegradable raw material.


The cylindrical shape serves as a module from which different object typologies can emerge. It allows construction with varying heights and localised firmness to meet the users needs. Similar to conventional upholstered furniture, these require periodic reupholstery, offering opportunities to redefine and adapt the object typology and appearance. The modules can be modified, with areas felted to different firmness levels, and the wool’s colour and fibre structure can be reselected. This is where the diversity of European wool comes into its own, offering a wide range of customization. 

Thus, the object, like humans and nature, is in a constant state of redefinition and adaptation to changing circumstances. Despite the object typology and visual appearance of the modules undergoing multiple changes, and the modules appearing to be new from the outside after each refelting, their history cannot be erased. With each refelting, new layers of wool are applied, resulting in visible layers in the cross-section and the formation of coloured rings of different wools over time, analogous to the annual rings of a tree. They tell the history of the origin and creation up to the current state wordlessly. Ultimately, the object does not weaken over time, but becomes stronger with each cycle.